IAS 2 INventories
The objective of this Standard is to prescribe the accounting treatment for inventories. A primary issue in accounting for inventories is the amount of cost to be recognised as an asset and carried forward until the related revenues are recognised. This Standard provides guidance on the determination of cost and its subsequent recognition as an expense, including any write-down to net realisable value. It also provides guidance on the cost formulas that are used to assign costs to inventories.
An entity shall apply this Standard for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2005.
Inventories - (a) held for sale in the ordinary course of business; (b) in the process of production for such sale; or (c) in the form of materials or supplies to be consumed in the production process or in the rendering of services.
Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business less the estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale.
Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.
Measurement of Inventories
Inventories shall be measured at the lower of cost and net realisable value [IAS 2.09]
Cost of Inventories
The cost of inventories shall comprise all costs of purchase, costs of conversion and other costs incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. [IAS 2.10]
Techniques for the measurement of cost.
Techniques for the measurement of the cost of inventories, such as the standard cost method or the retail method, may be used for convenience if the results approximate cost. Standard costs take into account normal levels of materials and supplies, labour, efficiency and capacity utilisation. They are regularly reviewed and, if necessary, revised in the light of current conditions. [IAS 2.21]
The cost of inventories of items that are not ordinarily interchangeable and goods or services produced and segregated for specific projects shall be assigned by using specific identification of their individual costs. [IAS 2.23]
The cost of inventories, other than those dealt with in the paragraph above, shall be assigned by using the first-in, first-out (FIFO) or weighted average cost formula. An entity shall use the same cost formula for all inventories having a similar nature and use to the entity. For inventories with a different nature or use, different cost formulas may be justified. [IAS 2.25]
Net Realisable Value
The cost of inventories may not be recoverable if those inventories are damaged, if they have become wholly or partially obsolete, or if their selling prices have declined. The cost of inventories may also not be recoverable if the estimated costs of completion or the estimated costs to be incurred to make the sale have increased. The practice of writing inventories down below cost to net realisable value is consistent with the view that assets should not be carried in excess of amounts expected to be realised from their sale or use. [IAS 2.28]
Recognition as an expense
When inventories are sold, the carrying amount of those inventories shall be recognised as an expense in the period in which the related revenue is recognised. The amount of any write-down of inventories to net realisable value and all losses of inventories shall be recognised as an expense in the period the write-down or loss occurs. The amount of any reversal of any write-down of inventories, arising from an increase in net realisable value, shall be recognised as a reduction in the amount of inventories recognised as an expense in the period in which the reversal occurs. [IAS 2.34]
(a) the accounting policies adopted in measuring inventories, including the cost formula used;
(b) the total carrying amount of inventories and the carrying amount in classifications appropriate to the entity;
(c) the carrying amount of inventories carried at fair value less costs to sell;
(d) the amount of inventories recognised as an expense during the period;
(e) the amount of any write-down of inventories recognised as an expense in the period;
(f) the amount of any reversal of any write-down that is recognised as a reduction in the amount of inventories recognised as expense in the period ;
(g) the circumstances or events that led to the reversal of a write-down of inventories in accordance; and
(h) the carrying amount of inventories pledged as security for liabilities(b) the initial recognition of an asset or liability in a transaction which:
(i) is not a business combination; and
(ii) at the time of the transaction, affects neither accounting profit nor taxable profit (tax loss).[IAS 2.36]